(Oxfordshire Communications in Egyptology VIII)
In ancient Egyptian religion, the Spirits of the West are divine entities who convey the Sun across the night sky. They are often found in the form of jackals and are connected with the better-known jackal gods, such as Anubis in his capacity as guide of souls. The texts and iconography relating to the Spirits of the West are varied and often unusual. This publication provides an analysis of the symbolism of these deities and their role in the cycles of birth and rebirth based on the course of the Sun. The Spirits of the West guide the justified soul to the horizon, which is the place of transfiguration and rebirth.
The author discusses the hymns and other documents which refer to these spirits, and has added a comprehensive annotated list of the textual and iconographic sources for the Spirits of the West.
A version of this short study appeared in 1990 as Oxfordshire Communications in Egyptology I and has long been out of print. This edition has been extensively revised and new illustrations have been added.